Part II. ONE medium sized essay to be answered in three substantial paragraphs (30 points/100). For this essay, you will provide specific examples drawn from your lectures, readings, & films
*1) The U.S. and Latin America During the Cold War, 1954 to 1991.
Write a well-crafted essay in which you analyze the U.S.-Latin America relationship during the Cold War (for Latin America, that begins with the U.S overthrow of the Arbenz administration in Guatemala in 1954). Be sure to address: Guatemala during Neocolonialism the role that US railroad, banana companies came to play in Guatemala in the early 20th century; the way Guatemala was pulled into the Cold War (1954); describe how and why the U.S. overthrew Arbenz in 1954 (this pulled Latin America into the whirlpool of the Cold War) and the consequences that that had for Guatemala and then the rest of Latin America (Cuba, Chile, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua ). How did the Cuban Revolution in1959 impact the hemisphere? What were the US responses to the Cuban Revolution and to social revolutionary activity in Latin America? How and why did the Latin American militaries come to dominate politics in Latin America during the Cold War? What were the consequences of that? What was the U.S. role in that? Discuss the impact of the Cold War on Latin America, its impact on various sectors of Latin American society and some consequences, or legacies for the region.
Be sure to provide examples of the way other Latin American countries were affected by their Cold War relationship with the U.S. (discuss in detail at least two other countries Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, Argentina or Brazil, for example).
Study hints: our lectures and notes; our films; my articles: The US and Latin America since the end of the 19th Century, The Monroe Doctrine (and consequences for Latin America); Chasteens chs 8, 9 and 10; Wood and Alexanders sections: Social Revolution, Cold War, The Lesser of Two Evils by David Schmitz, & The Beliefs behind the Policies by Lars Schoultz
Part III: ONE short essay to be answered in two substantial paragraph each (20 points out of 100). You choose one from the following two to answer as completely as you can.
*2) Nationalism. Write a well-crafted essay in which you address the changes that nationalism brought for Mexico, and then for the rest of Latin America in the 20th century (discuss at least one more country). Discuss how countries turned away from Neocolonialism, with Mexico leading the way. Discuss the political expressions of nationalism (Cesar Augusto Sandino, Juan José Arévalo, and Pablo Neruda, for example). Discuss economic nationalism (resource nationalism, industrialization and ISI). Discuss cultural nationalism (painting, art, literature). Discuss the impact of Nationalism across the hemisphere. Why did Mexico’s economic nationalist policies run out of steam in 1982? What happened when small countries tried putting into to place Nationalism like the large countries had? Be sure to provide specific examples.
Study hints: our lectures and notes; our films, Chasteens ch. 8 and 9, see our Wood & Alexander articles on this topic in our syllabus, announcements and this study guide (above)
*3) End of Cold War, Neoliberalism, Globalization 3.0 and 21st Century Transformations. Write a well-crafted essay in which you address the changes that the end of the Cold War, Neoliberalism, and late 20th century and early 21st century transformations brought for the countries of this hemisphere. Discuss the end of the Cold War and its legacies for Latin America. Discuss why and how countries like Mexico led the way away shifting from Economic Nationalism to embracing Neoliberalism (including the role of the U.S. and the international financial community) and some consequences this had on some of these countries (like Mexico and the U.S.). Discuss also the other aspects of Globalization 3.0 and 21st century transformations, including technological innovations, migration, off-shoring production, in-shoring a labor force, the drug trade and consequences, environmental change and movements for environmental justice. Be sure to provide specific examples of how countries and peoples were impacted by all of these transformations.
Study hints: our lectures and notes; our films, Chasteens ch. 11, our Wood and Alexander articles and our newspaper articles (see our syllabus, announcements and this study guide, above)