ALL OF THE ANSWERS WILL BE IN THE LINKS BELOW. PLEASE ONLY USE THE LINKS BELOW. FOR THE SHORT ANSWERS PLEASE FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO ANSWER THEM CORRECTLY.
- Chapter 5: Meet the Living Primates (Etting 2019, 148-183)*
Link: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorationsbioanth/chapter/__unknown__-4/ (Links to an external site.)
- Chapter 6: Primate Ecology and Behavior (Jaffe 2019, 190-226)*
Link: https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/explorationsbioanth/chapter/__unknown__-6/ (Links to an external site.)
- Video: Moral behavior in animals (2014) by Frans de Waal, TEDTalk., 16:37 min. Accessed on April 10, 2020: https://www.ted.com/talks/frans_de_waal_moral_behavior_in_animals?language=en (Links to an external site.)
- Video: The surprising science of alpha males (2017) by Frans d e Waal, 15:47min. TEDTalk Accessed on April 10, 2020: https://www.ted.com/talks/frans_de_waal_the_surprising_science_of_alpha_males?language=en
Directions: Answer the short-essay questions with a minimum of three (3) key terms and their definitions in one paragraph. Write each definition in a separate sentence in the paragraph. Begin each question with a topic sentence that answers the question. (You can re-phrase the short-essay question as a statement, for example). Define each key term in a separate sentence. The third question is optional and it is worth five points of extra credit.
- What are Primates? Answer both a and b below:
- a. What are three features about primates that differentiate them from other mammals?
- b. What are traits present in the Strepsirrhini suborder that are absent in the Haplorrhine suborder? Name an example species of each suborder.
Key terms: Primate, Strepsirrhini, Haplorrhine, Platyrrhine, Catarrhine,Tarsiirformes, Simiiformes (or Anthropoidea), Lemuriiformes, arboreal adaptation, dietary plasticity, parental investment, rhinarium, incisors, canines, premolars, molars, dental formula, loph, biliophodont molar, Y-5 molar, clade, primitive characteristics, derived characteristics, Stereoscoptic (binocular) vision, diurnal, nocturnal, hominin.
- a. What are three features about primates that differentiate them from other mammals?
- What are at least three traits of New World monkeys (Platyrrhine) that are absent in Old World monkeys (Catarrhine)? Key terms: Primate, Platyrrhines, Catarrhines, Anthropoidea, rhinarium, incisors, canines, premolars, molars, dental formula, prehensile tail, premolars, loph, bilophodont molar, X-4 molar, Y-5 molar, clade, primitive characteristics, derived characteristics, diurnal, nocturnal, and Stereoscopic (binocular) vision.
- What are the characteristics of chimpanzee alpha males and females? How do you (or a chimpanzee) become an alpha male or female? What are the costs of being an alpha male or female? In your opinion, how are chimpanzees similar to humans? (TEDTalk by Frans de Waal (2012) & (2017))
Key terms: Primates, social learning, male competition, coalitions, dominance hierarchy, sexual dimorphism, altruism, pro-social behavior, consoler in chief, socioecology, sexual selection, polygynous, polyandrous, monogamous, fitness.
–> To answer the short-essay question above, watch the following video first:
The surprising science of alpha males (2017) by Frans de Waal, 15:47min. TEDTalk Accessed on April 10, 2020: https://www.ted.com/talks/frans_de_waal_the_surprising_science_of_alpha_males?language=en (Links to an external site.)
Multiple Choice Questions (Only 20 questions will be on the quiz):
- Biological features that differentiate primates from other mammals, features that are characteristic or unique to primates, include _________________, _______________, __________________, and ________________. (relatively large brain size, forward-facing eye orbits, prolonged parental care, arboreal adaptations, dietary plasticity)
- Shared biological features among two or more groups of organisms that share a common ancestor, like the fingers of lemurs, chimpanzees, and humans, are called __________________. (homologous or analogous?)
- Shared biological features among two or more groups of organisms that do not share a common ancestor, like the wings of butterflies, bats, and birds, are called _________________. (homologous or analogous?)
- __________________ characteristics have undergone much evolutionary change since the last common ancestor in a clade. An example would be the relatively large brain in humans. (Derived or primitive?)
- __________________ characteristics have not changed much since the last common ancestor in a clade. An example would be the relatively small brain in lemurs. (Derived or primitive?)
- Name a primate species that would be considered a Platyrrhine (NWM)? ___________________
- Tarsiers are in the Infraorder ____________ ?
- A sagittal crest would be present in which primate species? (golden tamarin, rhesus macaques, western lowland gorilla, howler monkey, bonobo, gibbon?)
- __________________ are Strepshirines. They are mostly carnivorous, mostly nocturnal, solitary, move slowly, and the females practice infant parking. (Hint: Seuss Lorax character is based on them.)
- Chimpanzees, gibbons, and rhesus macaques (OWM) are in the Infraorder _______________________.
- Spider monkeys and howler monkeys (NWM) are in the Infraorder
- Tough sitting pads (ischial callosities) are typically found in which family of primates? Hint: OWM.
- In what geographical region would you expect to find lemurs in natural habitats?
- Which primate species would be in the Ceboidea family? (Hint: NWM)
- Which primate species is considered a member of the superfamily Hominoidea? (Hint: apes)
- What are the six basic residence patterns of primate groups?
- What parvorder of primates have a prehensile tail? Where do they live in the wild?
- Where would you expect to find Platyrrhines in natural habitats?
- Where would you expect to find Catarrhines in natural habitats?
- The primate species observed living in a solitary residence pattern in natural habitats is _______________ (Hint: An ape species native to Southeast Asia)
- The lower order primates (Strepsirrhines) have retained some primitive characteristics such as the wet nose rhinarium and an enlarged olfactory bulb region of the brain. These features indicate that these primates have an increased reliance on:
- A high level of sexual dimorphism in both in overall body size and canine size would indicate that there is also a high level of these male behaviors:
- In what geographical region would you expect to find ring-tailed lemurs in the wild?
- Infanticide is supposedly a male reproductive strategy that serves to:
- While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular nonhuman primate that you are watching uses its hands, feet and tail to move throughout the trees within its enclosure. This is most likely a/an:
- Knuckle-walking is a form of locomotion observed in which primate species? (Hint: a species of ape)
- An obsolete category for a primitive primate that is based on Latin words pro (before) and simia (ape or monkey) is ____________. (Hint: It includes all living and extinct Strepsirrhines plus tarsiers.)
- Higher order primates (Platyrrhines, Catarrhines and Tarsiirformes) have an enhanced reliance on their _________ instead of smell.
- Which primate species has been observed to practice cooperative hunting, tool making, and meat-sharing in natural habitats? Chimpanzees
- Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance survival and ______________ .
- Which primate species would be an example of a Platyrrhine? (Hint: NWM)
- In general, male primate reproductive strategies emphasize__________________.
- The presence of a sagittal crest on a primate skull would indicate the following type of a diet: ____________. (Hint: soft foods like fruit or tough foods like leaves and twigs?)
- An arboreal adaptation means adaptations to living ____________. (Hints: Living on the ground, in the water, or in the trees?)
- What is a typical species of Cercopithecoid? (Hint: OWM)
- Bilophodont molars are found exclusively in which group of non-human primates? (Hint: OWM)
- Prehensile tails are found exclusively in which group of non-human primates? (Hint: Platyrrhine or Catarrhine?)
- Which group of primates (all primates including humans) has the highest the largest brain size? Humans!
- Altruistic behaviors that increase the fitness of the altruistic organisms relatives (kin), while at the expense of the altruist are called _______________ (natural selection, kin selection, artificial selection, sexual selection?)
- You discover the skeletal remains of a primate that has a rhinarium, a toothcomb, and no postorbital closure. You are likely looking at a
- Which non-human primate ape species have been observed practicing monogamous mating strategies? Humans, gibbons and siamangs
- It is hypothesized that natural selection favored sociality among primates primarily in response to __________________.
- The dental formula found in Catarrhines is ________________. (Hint: OWM, apes, and humans)
- In general, female primate reproductive strategies emphasize _______________ (Hints: Female competition over males? Female competition over food?)
- In what geographical region would you expect to find Cercopithecoids in their natural habitats? (Hint: OWM)