Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative diplococcus and belongs to the genus Neisseria. (Springer and Salen) It is the second most common sexually transmitted bacteria and is a significant world health issue. N. Gonorrhoeae is an ancient virus focused on the younger population of both wealthy and poorer nations. (Springer and Salen) N. gonorrhoeae manifests in humans only and cannot survive outside of a host. (Springer and Salen)
Most N. Gonorrhoeae infections are usually benign and affect the genitals, pharynx, and rectum. If the infection is left untreated it can ascend through the upper urogenital tract and lead to endometritis, salpingitis, epididymitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, leading to chronic pain and infertility. (Springer and Salen) Complications such as ectopic pregnancy and other symptoms in advanced cases can lead to death.
N. Gonorrhoeae is difficult to treat. It has built in mechanisms for adaption to immune responses and is resistant to multiple drugs. It presently has no effective vaccine specifically because of its ability to conform to the body’s protective immune responses and its ability to establish a successful environment for infection. (Springer and Salen) N. Gonorrhoeae can manipulate and evade the immune system’s response from Macrophages; cells created in the bone morrow. These cells are a critical part of the body’s defense against bacteria. It is this trait in particular that makes it so difficult to develop N. Gonorrhoeae vaccines. (Springer and Salen)
There are an estimated 106 million new gonorrhea cases annually with more than 500,000 cases in the United States. (Springer and Salen) Control of the spread of gonorrhea depends primarily on antimicrobial therapy, accurate diagnosis, and public education. After diagnosis and treatment, patients should abstain from sex for a minimum of 1 week. There are several comorbidities of N. Gonorrhoeae including HIV. (Springer and Salen)
Patients who recover from Neisseria gonorrhoeae show no additional adaptations or partial immunities to subsequent exposures. (Springer and Salen)
Springer, Charles, and Philip Salen. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae – an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics. ScienceDirect.Com | Science, Health and Medical Journals, Full Text Articles and Books., 21 Apr. 2022, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/neisseria-gonorrhoeae.
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